After the World War II and then the Cold War, the West was a First world, powerful and dominant. The World War II had changed the political and geopolitical discourse, but the Cold War even more. Major critiques on his works are: it is inadequate as an explanation of conflict. While the Soviets fought to capture the vast swaths of the land masses and subordinated the economy to politics and were more closed society, the US, on the other hand was a democratic society, very open, having the control over the oceans, embracing trade, investments and capitalistic way of functioning. Thia map is showing a disproportion of the world and distorts the size of the northern latitudes, mainly shrinking African, South American and Australian continents while is, at the same time, enlarging Russia and Greenland. 2. Nazis thought that the Treaty of Versailles produced only „geographical error“ and not peace at all. He was pursuing racist geopolitics. History of Cartography, History of Geographic Thought, History of geography, History of Geopolitics ドイツ地政学と戦時下の日本の大東亜共栄圏理論 (German geopolitics and wartime Japan’s idea of a Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere) Even the world heritage is the blend of Islamic, Confucian, Buddhist, African, Latin American, Slavic and Western civilizations. Vast territories do not have to represent always a supreme power in practice. On the Western side is closer to Europe and one ideology and on the eastern side is closer to Russia and communist ideology. Fourth, the growth of civilization-consciousness is enhanced by the dual role of the West. 1. Cultural-historical types cannot convey its essential characteristics to another cultural-historical type. Eversince that system of inequality was established and the others cannot simply apply the five stages that the Modernization theory suggests in order to change their status. Geogra- phy is the most fundamental factor in international politics because it is the most permanent. world history & geopolitics 2019. Economies played a vital role in these confrontations not the cultural identities. Another important aspect of this discourse is the comparative framework. On the other hand, it may not be applicable to non-Western civilizations with an emphasis on Islamic civillization, because Islam is not bounded by geographical boundaries and so is not any other religion different from Catholicism, they are rather universal concepts. The Soviet Union believed that Germany would not invade, but trust is a sword with two blades in the rivalry. is a platform for academics to share research papers. The intermediate region, found between the lands of the Adriatic sea and Indus river, is the bridge between the Eastern and Western civilizations. Huntington also lacked to explain internal conflicts and plularism in societies, because the only point he concentrated on was the interpretation of the cultures and civilizations. Rostow was a defender of capitalism and a free market economy. Third, the processes of economic modernization and social change throughout the world are separating people from longstanding local identities. Those preconditions are directions in economy and ideas about it. If these two do not do it, another power may arise and pursue that goal. It is not possible to live on autarky in the 21st century and people simply have to interact and they do interact with one another. However, a call for the Western world to dominate the others would just confirm the paradigm of Modernization and Dependency theory. According to Spyman, Rimland contains the Heartland. 1.1. The natural resources were exploited and the clonized people were enslaved. The only thing is about priorities: whether space will be first or the race. As I explained previously, a religion is something that people use to identify themselves with. The development of cultural-historical type is cyclic. How economy and economic development and cooperation are important it tells the number of regional organizations, such as European Union (EU), Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), The Organization of African Unity (OAU), The South Asian Association for Regionsl Cooperation (SAARC) that have a very important role in today’s regional in world politics. It is a kind of political and human geography. Another critique involves weak academic points of this theory, which is in methodology of discipline, correlatative proportions and approach. All non-Western civilizations are aware of the Western role in the political system of the world and are ready to challenge it. The Catholics and Protestants are to the north and west from this line and they share the same historical and cultural experiences, starting from the feudalism, the Renaissance, the Enlightment, the French and Industrial Revolution and were able to maintain better economic development than the people to the eastern side of the line. Fifth, cultural characteristics and differences are less mutable and hence less compromised and resolved than political and economic ones. “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland; who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island; who rules the World-Island controls the world.” (Mackinder, Democratic ideals and reality, p. 106). He was influenced by Hegel, who had the idea of the linear progress of humanity while Danilovsky saw it as a circular. The second stage is setting up needed preconditions in order to take off. These differences are accumulated in centuries. In the cases of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh, the Persian Gulf, some African states and Bosnia and Herzegovina that is not the case. As Joseph Nye defined it: „Power is the ability to influence the behavior of others to get the outcomes one wants.“ There are three possible ways to conduct it and that is either through coercion with threats, payments in order to induce behavioral change or to attract and co-opt. When talking about correlative proportions, the key argument that he holds is that future conflicts will be caused by civilizational differences. Some of the many examples can include strong organizations between Confucian, Buddhist and Islamic world. The cultural and civilizational identities take over political and ideological ones and the fault lines between different civilizations used to be mainly due to those reasons, and that is continuing. Hitler believed in the crude theory of Darwin. However, it has never been about the polity when it comes to the rivalry, but much more than that. The book „The Clash of civilizations and the Remaking of the world order“ by Samuel Huntington was published in 1993 and even today, after more than twenty years, it is quoted and did not lose its influence in the sphere of international relations. Ukraine is a part of the Heartland and it is so because of its strategic location. The second one is European overseas invasions and expansion, knows as a Columbian epoch. The Soviet Union, as a tellurocratic center had them on the land. As their interactions increase, they are becoming aware of it. They change over time in their nature and practice. Political, Free resources to assist you with your university studies! And the third is Closed space and the struggle for dominance, known as a Post-Columbian era. And the last part includes cratopolitics with nomopolitics, praxi-politics and archo-politics added to it. Rich Dad Poor Dad: What The Rich Teach Their Kids About Money - That the Poor and Middle Class Do Not! 4. List of issues Latest articles Partial Access; Volume 26 2021 Volume 25 2020 Volume 24 2019 Volume 23 2018 Volume 22 2017 And that ideological difference Huntington refused. Which are: Chaldean, Hebrew, Arab, Indian, Persian, Greek, Roman, Germanic, Egyptian and Chinese. It was a time characterized by colonial expansionism abroad and industrial modernization at ome. This concept marks, usually, phenomena of a twentieth century together with all history-changing events that had occurred and left its consequences. This theory is another critique for „The Clash of civilizations.“ The underdeveloped countries, which means all non-Western countries, were exploited on the basis of economy, not just civilization and culture. The success of the EU can be assigned to the fact that is rooted in the same civilization, but also thanks to its successful development policies. What he undermined is the role of the Nazis. It is true that it means western Europe, the USA, Australia and New Zealand and that Japanese and Chinese are from the eastern part of the globe, yet the main argument is that those civilizations were not named as Asian or European, but rather Western and non-Western as the main paradigm is cultural and civilizational not just geographical. Whatever happens on a micro level, such as one city and one place, can be compared to the event that happened in another place and that micro level is put into the macro one and thus a deeper insight is being offered in order to be checked how related the things are. The term geopolitics was first used by the Swedish political scientist Rudolf Kjellén (1864-1922), a student of the German geographer Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904). However, that is the case more often than it is not. When we only look at the post Cold War era, after the end of the Iron Curtain- which caused cultural but also political changes on the European soil. Western countries exploited less developed countries since colonialism. They also try to take over international institutions and compete for economic and military dominance. 1. The concept was later on taken by German’s General Karl Haushofer, that shifted its doctrine when he had formed Zeitschrift fur Geopolitik (Journal for Geopolitics), with an aim of propagating nationalist thinking, that culminated during the reign of Adolf Hitler and horrors of World War II. But modern schools of thought, even when they accept deter-minism, reject the earlier thesis that geo-graphical conditions can be the decisive factors.4 The geographical environment is Biographies of Key Personalities • Haushofer is one of geopolitics' seminal historical figures. His ideas formed what is known today as the perspective of “classical” Geopolitics. The only way Germany could survive is to assure Lebensraum and make sure it is enough for the German nation. The vast swath of territory which lies on the eastern side of Europe and goes to the western side of Asia is specific, because it does not fully belong to Europe nor it belongs to Asia, simply because these two geographical areas are geographical and not civilizational. At the first, micro level, the joint groups struggle among them and fight for the territory, which is often violently and it happens along the fault lines. Certainly, all these missions were not only political and only interest driven, but rather were the competition of geopower and were a struggle for the world’s dominance in capturing as many territories as possible. Even more than ethnicity, religion discriminates sharply and exclusively among people. And it is more likely that those, already existing differences, will not disappear, they will continue. They also weaken the nation state as a source of identity. *You can also browse our support articles here >. Thus, it follows that whoever has a power over Rimland, has a power over the World’s island. A Critique of the „The clash of civilizations“ theory. One of those representations or interpretatons of the world is Mercator projection map. No plagiarism, guaranteed! A Short History of Geopolitics: Journal of Geography: Vol 87, No 2. (Huntington, 1993) Practically every action, every improvement, every development made, has been closely intertwined with political geography. Many conflicts were going on in the past years, but they were mainly the ones in the Western part of the world and between themselves. Those plans were to have a racially pure climate inside the state, where only pure Aryans would be allowed. How is this possible there were two ways: one is by Mackinder who claimed that the best way is to align with the Soviet Union, because is the heartland power and who rules it, rules the world. Mackinder’s idea was to be vast in territory and fast in movement. It was coined in 1899, by Rudolf Kjellen. Introduction Books shelved as geopolitics: Prisoners of Geography: Ten Maps That Tell You Everything You Need to Know About Global Politics by Tim Marshall, ... Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (Paperback) by. The Heartland has primarily been Eurasia, Central Asia and high seas. From 1618 to 1648, one of the most destructive wars in history was waged in Central Europe. On the one hand, the West is at a peak of power. Powerful Russian political figures subsequently took an interest in Dugin, a Russian eurasianist, fascist and nationalist who has developed a close relationship with Russia's Acad… Now, what is Huntington predicting in his theory is that Western world will interact with non-Western world and all other non-Western civilizations. Cultural. 1. Nevertheless, these factors are not fixed. The direction of the Cold War gave them more importance and publicity. Huntington stated that: “What ultimately counts for people is not political ideology or economic interest. In addition to that, there are no laws of development, but rich countries got richer and poor countries became more impoverished and underdeveloped. Instead of acting independently, as one geopolitical power, Europe, instead was in between: it was either part of the Eurasian USSR power or the Western power of the USA. The importance to foster it is not only because of the development, but because of diminishing the threat of imperialism, competition between states and state-centric reasoning. For him, in order to perceive a state better and look into its core, what matters is: demo-politics If one state is practicing communism the others will follow in that domino effect. The period of civilization 4. 2 Editor’s Letter Dear Reader: I invite you to browse our classics as well as our new titles in world history and geopolitics. (Huntington, 1993) In his understanding, America was a home of freedom, American values are more universal and European are only nationalistic and it is an advanced country only possessing territories in Central America  and the Caribbean and was already open  to trade, investments and capitalism in general. Is it very common premise in the Western world that religion and race are in the same package that always goes together. It is an ultimate importance and a source of identity, that are not going easily to give up on. This was the biggest success of the lobbying groups- to transform the discourse of the western world and the previous idea that they had and incorporate their own: Judeo-Christian. He was aware of the cost of bad ideology, that could cause bad practicality and that is the omission the US could not afford to pay. Includes a lesson plan that introduces students to various geopolitical issues. And the maps are important interpretations of it. In his theory, Huntington presented nine possible civilizations, which are: Western, Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic, Latin American, Buddhist and possibly African. Another example can be the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Out of that situation and their ideology, the practitioners of the Geopolitik realized that is the time that Germany had its living space greater than ever before, what is called Lebensraum in German. While the US was thalassocratic center and had its power over the oceans where it had their nuclear missiles on submarines. The fundamental problem for Britain has always been continental Europe. While atheists form about 2% and it is clear that people identify themselves in the name of religion. History of the term. That outcome was influenced by the Soviet Union and the US. “The Clash of Civilizations” and the contemporary system of international politics: While the main struggle was between sea and land powers, such as the clash between the Great Britain and later the US who wanted to dominate the pivotal area, and Russian and German struggle to dominate Eur’asia, which should be avoided at any price, according to the foreign policies of the US and Great Britain. The history, on the other hand is the way, that the events are told, generated by the use of geopolitics, whether positive or negative. Table of Contents VAT Registration No: 842417633. The Orthodox Christians and even Muslims are to the east and south. The Nazi party was in favor of this thought and wanted to spread their ideology by capturing the territories of the main importance, during the World War II. According to this theory, the last phase of evolution will be civilizational conflict. In the ideologically divided world, any attempt to seize the territory geographically is to seize it ideologically as well. The importance of regional economic blocs is likely to continue to increase in the future. (Huntington, 1993) However, when the Cold War came to an end, states worried about their economies the most and considered national economies as the main driving force for both- their growth and development and for international political system. After the end of the WWI, Germany had lost its colonies and that loss was a humiliation for the German side, especially for Haushofer, Hess and Hitler that thought how the peace treaty and the Treaty of Versailles took their national pride away. For him,  the most important identity is cultural and civilizational, which separates all nations, more precisely by religion, language, institutions, customs and history. An example includes the European Union (EU), which is the most important economic partner to non-Westerns and has a vital role in world’s politics. It is not only used by politicians, but also by policy makers, journalists and similar analysts. If you are the original writer of this dissertation and no longer wish to have your work published on the website then please: Our academic writing and marking services can help you! This is the difference that is still dominant. Just like centuries ago, in the ancient period, it happened between the Roman Empire which was tellulocratic center and Carthage that was thalassocratic. It is clear that economy plays a vital role in any country and regional cooperation is another important aspect of economic well-being, stabilty, development and peace. It was one of his seminal texts that articulated the nature of the geopolitical relationship between the British Isles and Europe. Furthermore, the clash of civilizations can be examined at two levels and it is likely to occur at them: the first one is micro level and the second one is macro level. Even in the Huntington’s theory, it is the Western civilization that will interact with other non-Western. Gall-Peters map projection of an equal size area. US, France, Great Britain and the Soviet Union still had their colonies, for the Germany that was not the case anymore. Slavs and Jews are inferior to Aryans, according to Hitler and it was important to let them know that in genocide in 1941. As the world advances, politics as well as the rise and need for power also advances. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. This might be just another case of Prisioners dilemma. That change was the division of the Western Christianity (mainly Catholicism and Protestantism) and Orthodox Christianity and later on Islam. History, modes of production, libido, etc., are at times advanced as deter-mining elements (135). It is often characterized that for Haushofer space is more important, and for Hitler race was more important than space, but in reality it is in both cases about the space. In was more often in the period of tribes and later on in the period of colonialism when the people identified themselves in the context of local identity. In this thesis, Huntington is claiming that the main cause of conflict in the new world will be cultural, and not economic or ideological. This organization is divided along North-South lines, it is not culturally divided, just as NATO. The fourth stage is technological maturity, which marks the shift of production to goods and mass consumption. It is important to state that Huntington was right in predicting the result of the Cold War that happened to be globalization and secondly it comes with the fear of uncertain future. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on However, this map also has a drawback which is to distort the shape of the continents due to two dimensional visualizations of three dimensional landmasses. That is because of the „double role“ of the West. The interaction between the West and the rest is more likely to be only between the West and the Islamic countries. The clashes existed before Huntington explained them, from the period of colonization, Belle Époque to the later stages. Imperialist Geopolitics In early 20th century, geopolitics was a form of power or knowledge concerned with promoting states expansionism and securing empires. 4. This block of countries is working on the economic growth, regional stabilization, social and cultural progress and mutual assistance. Nikolai Danilevsky presented the theory of historical-cultural types in the book „Russia and Europe.“ The theory is about cultural and political affairs of the Slavic world to the Romano-German world. Cold War was the conflict of geopolitics more than just the war of ideologies. The word itself has been derived from Latin “civitas”- the city the “public sphere.” Although its meaning has been changing over the time, it usually describes societies that have a certain level of cultural and technological development. His idea was to pursue national interests of the USA, through democracy and freedom. However, they realize that exist tremendous differences between different civilizations and social settings.